Skąd bierze się niechęć do obcych? O grupowych identyfikacjach Polaków
Group identity is both a fundamental issue for social psychology and one of the key explanations of intergroup hostility. In this paper, on the basis of a nationwide survey (N = 1016), we compare the strength of Poles’ identification with nation, place of residence, occupation and gender, while presenting regional variations in these identifications in Poland. In doing so, we analyze the relationship between acceptance of minority groups and these identifications. We also test whether the three components of national identity: the strength of ties, the in-group affect, and the cognitive centrality are indeed, as suggested in previous studies, beneficial aspects of identity that have a positive relationship with attitudes toward out-groups. The findings we obtained, among other things, allowed us to look at identification with groups as more complex than was assumed during previous research. Different contents of identification, as well as different components of national identity, are differently associated with acceptance of out-groups. Particular attention is paid to broad, umbrella identifications that have positive associations with acceptance of minorities.