On freedom of science

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz


In pursuing any kind of scientific activity, we pose a certain problems, and seek solution of them by various methods; as a result, we form our own judgements on the matter to which the given problem pertained, and finally make public this judgement, which is a solution of the problem posed, in conjunction with the relevant evidence. Freedom to pursue science thus requires freedom in each of the four fields mentioned above; that is the individual pursuing scientific activity must enjoy freedom to choose problems, freedom to choose a method, i.e., the means whereby he/she solves his/her problems, freedom of thought, and freedom of speech. Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (1890–1963), a philosopher of science analyses here all these four “freedoms”, as well as considers both the extent to which each of them is indispensable to the successful advance of science and the extent to which a limitation on them can be justified on other grounds.


scientific method; values in science; freedom of science

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