Look at gene, chromosome and genome – molecular cytogenetic investigations

Joanna Małuszyńska


Cytogenetics is complementary to genetic and molecular analysis of genome structure and function. From the beginning it has been mainly used for identification of chromosomes and karyotype construction. Most significant for the progress in cytogenetics was development of chromosome banding techniques and in situ hybridization, especially fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and its different modifications which have become the most important techniques in molecular cytogenetics. FISH allows physical gene mapping and localization of different non-coding DNA sequences on chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Repetitive DNA sequences can generate unique FISH-signal patterns on individual chromosomes valuable for karyotyping and phylogenetic analysis. These studies have important implications for basic research and practical applications. The understanding of the structure, function, organization and evolution of genomes enabled many new cytogenetic applications to both medicine and agriculture, particularly in diagnosis and plant breeding.


chromosome; cytogenetics; DNA; FISH; genome research; chromosome aberrations; evolution; molecular biology

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